MIDEAST MIRROR 09.07.15, SECTION B (THE ARAB WORLD)
1- Algeria faces the fire
2-Washington’s dangerous confusion
3-‘A rock and roll dance’
4-A shameful silence
1- Algeria faces the fire
Time is running out for everyone, and the fear is that if the situation in Ghardaia is left to its own devices, it may turn into another Der'a [where the current Syrian troubles began] and set the whole of Algeria's body on fire. The decision to authorize the army to bring the situation in Ghardaia under control was the right one, but is insufficient on its own. There is need for real solutions; most of all, for economic solutions that create job opportunities for the members of the [Arab] Maliki Chaanba community who find themselves excluded by the Ibadi [Amazigh/Berber] society. There is also need for social solutions. Family ties need to lie at their heart, for families are no longer in control of their sons and they have allowed hatred between the two sects to exacerbate, leading to an unprecedented loss of life--Hadda Hazen in Algerian al-Fadjr
An immediate end must be put to this fighting that serves no one from Ghardaia, whomever they may be. But wisdom and reason require those who believe in them to shed their hatred, loathing and rejection of others. These sentiments and prejudices must be totally erased from everyone’s memories. Although this may seem difficult, the consequences of the latest events are driving all parties towards undertakings that call for an end to acts of aggression and to the senseless killing of people. The authorities who have a good understanding of the nature of this area, its inhabitants and its honorable dignitaries with their sound reason, will not allow those who have awakened this sedition to continue to kill people and undermine stability--Jamal Oukili in Algerian ech-Chaab
With up to 30 people killed in one day in a conflict between the town's Arab Sunni Maliki and Amazigh (Berber) Ibadi communities, the situation in the Algerian desert town of Ghardaia threatens to spin out of control, warns the editor-in-chief of an Algerian daily. The state must intervene in force before the town turns into an Algerian version of Der'a where the Syrian troubles first began in early 2011. There is need for a policy that erases the hatred that lies in the hearts of the two communities in Ghardaia, urges another Algerian commentator. Although this may appear to be a difficult task, the large number of deaths should convince everyone to come to their senses.
THE STATE MUST BE STRICT: "The state needs to be strict in dealing with this crisis that has taken Ghardaia by storm," writes Editor-in-Chief Hadda Hazen in Thursday's Algerian daily al-Fadjr.
For the state faces a challenge in this fragile part of Algeria. With every Ramadan, Ghardaia witnesses a return to violence and conflict between the Arabs and Ibadis (Amazigh).
Time is running out for everyone, and the fear is that if the situation in Ghardaia is left to its own devices, it may turn into another Der'a [Syria, where the current troubles began] and set the whole of Algeria's body on fire.
The decision to authorize the army to bring the situation in Ghardaia under control was the right one, but is insufficient on its own. There is need for real solutions; most of all, for economic solutions that create job opportunities for the members of the [Arab] Maliki Chaanba community who find themselves excluded by the Ibadi [Amazigh] society. There is also need for social solutions. Family ties need to lie at their heart, for families are no longer in control of their sons and they have allowed hatred between the two sects to exacerbate, leading to an unprecedented loss of life.
The sedition in Ghardaia and the blood that has been shed there are everyone's responsibility, state and civil society alike. The latter has failed to provide a framework for the youth in that area. The political parties meanwhile rush to accuse the authorities for failing to find a solution when these very same parties have failed to penetrate all sectors of society in order to organize them within a framework of respect for law, custom, and tradition. And the family has also failed, as have the dignitaries of both sectarian groups. There is no longer anyone who can contain the street and control the youth so as to prevent further hatred, killings and sedition.
Has cohabitation between the two groups become impossible? Has separation between them become the sole solution?
As the wheel of death spun yesterday at maximum speed – there is talk of 30 people killed – there is no room left for mere palliatives. The state must therefore be strict, as the town's dignitaries have demanded. It must punish all the criminals there, from both sects. After all, those who fell yesterday belonged to both sides – Ibadis and Malikis.
The situation is very delicate. Siding with one side against another would be criminal, and would aggravate the situation further. What we see from the two groups on the social media– the incitement and demonization of the other– is frightening.
Discord between the Malikis and the Ibadis has never been religious or sectarian. The [Amazigh/Berber] Mozabites who live in the northern cities, where they have interests and trade, have never suffered from persecution. The crisis has never been sectarian in nature. The crisis today is caused by wretches and paupers left to their own devices, against the background of the absence of any real presence for the state.
Algeria is passing through a difficult period amidst this crisis-ridden regional situation. Terrorism surrounds us on our southern and eastern borders. The situation in Ghardaia may be exploited by terrorist groups in order to set the country on fire. It may open the door to foreign intervention, as has happened in the Arab countries in crisis.
"Everyone must bear their responsibilities – the state, political parties, society, and the family. The alternative is that we will face disaster!" concludes Hazem.
A REAL TRAGEDY: "Events have unfolded rapidly in Ghardaia Province, resulting in a real tragedy," writes Jamal Oukili in Thursday's Algerian daily ech-Chaab.
The number of people killed is totally unacceptable having transgressed all red lines in the attacks on people and property.
We cannot but wonder about what is to be gained from taking so many lives in this ugly manner where bullets were fired at families safe in their homes. Why has the fuse of sedition among the area's people been set alight? Those unhappy at the fact that security has spread in this province's corners are those who have stirred matters up in this manner that has taken everyone by surprise. No one expected the number of people killed to reach this frightening number.
This security situation must come to an end sooner or later, and peace must be restored to the area. This is the deep conviction of all Algerians who love Ghardaia regardless of their creed.
So wisdom and reason must return and replace the sweeping feelings and uncontained emotions that may have dire consequences. An immediate end must be put to this fighting that serves no one from Ghardaia, whomever they may be. But wisdom and reason require those who believe in them to shed their hatred, loathing and rejection of others. These sentiments and prejudices must be totally erased from everyone’s memories.
Although this may seem difficult, the consequences of the latest events are driving all parties towards undertakings that call for an end to acts of aggression and to the senseless killing of people.
"The authorities who have a good understanding of the nature of this area, its inhabitants and its honorable dignitaries with their sound reason, will not allow those who have awakened this sedition to continue to kill people and undermine stability," concludes Oukili.
2-Washington’s dangerous confusion
U.S. wagers in the Arab region have mostly failed to pay off; they have usually ended in failure at a very high cost, says 'Abdelbari 'Atwan on today's pan-Arab www.raialyoum.com
The fact that the U.S. sponsored program for training the 'moderate' Syrian opposition has turned out only 60 fighters so far highlights Washington’s confused strategy in the region, maintains the editor-in-chief of a pan-Arab online daily. But another feature of that same confusion is its reliance on the Kurds to fight ISIS-- a wager that is reshuffling all the cards and alliances in the region.
YET ANOTHER SCANDAL: "U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter's admission before the Senate Armed Forces Committee that the program to train 'moderate' Syrian opposition fighters has begun so slowly that only sixty have been trained so far, represents yet another scandal relating to Washington’s strategy in Iraq and Syria," writes Editor-in-Chief 'Abdelbari 'Atwan on Thursday's pan-Arab www.raialyoum.com.
Seven thousand Syrians applied to join the program whose aim is to create an army that fights ISIS. Out of these, only sixty have been chosen as adequate for the job at hand. The rest were merely seeking employment and a source of income. They could not be relied upon or trusted, since they could join ISIS even though they were recruited to fight it. At best, they lack 'the will to fight,' like the thousands of Iraqi soldiers who simply put down their arms and fled before firing a single bullet at ISIS forces marching on Mosul, and later on al-Ramadi [last year].
President Barack Obama's administration hopes to train five thousand volunteers every year as part of this program. But such hopes are one thing, and reality is another matter altogether. The Free Syrian Army (FSA) precedent is a clear example in this regard. Most wagers on this 'army' were dispelled, despite the billions of dollars pumped into training and arming it by the Gulf states. Instead, the FSA has shrunk into a few units. There are many reasons for this, including mistrust of the Americans and the desire not to become a sort of Syrian 'Awakening Forces' that fight hard-line Islamist groups, especially ISIS, the Nusra Front, and Ahrar ash-Sham. And if some units are an exception to this rule, they are few indeed.
U.S. strategy in Syria and Iraq is marked by confusion. It moves from one failure to another because it lacks any clear features, and because its priorities are prone to change very rapidly. At one time, the priority is to topple the [Syrian] regime by force; at another, it is to fight ISIS with the aim of ‘degrading’ it as a prelude to destroying it; at yet a third time, the emphasis is on a political solution as the sole way out of the crisis.
But it is also clear that the U.S. strategy is faltering in all three cases. The Syrian regime remains on its feet four years after the war targeting it began with the backing of the U.S. and certain Gulf states (Qatar and Saudi Arabia) as well as Turkey. ISIS getting stronger and expanding as a de facto state in two countries, Syria and Iraq as a first phase, and these territories will be used as a launching-pad for annexing new territories from neighboring countries at later phases, if the situation remains as is.
It is clear that the U.S. has begun to gradually 'wash its hands' of the Arabs, Sunnis and Shiites alike, and is placing all its eggs in the Kurds' basket, providing them with weapons and training. This has begun to translate itself in the form of 'victories' on the ground against ISIS in the Syrian northern and eastern areas – including the capture of the town of Tal Abyad near the Turkish borders – which are semi-contiguous to the self-rule area in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Because of their nationalist aspirations to establish a Kurdish state in northern Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey, the Kurds' will to fight ISIS is strong and guaranteed. And this gives rise to fears of some sort of rapprochement between the four regional states – Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Iran – leading them to set their difference aside for the foreseeable future.
It is from this perspective that we may best understand the initiative proposed by Russian President Vladimir Putin, which calls for the formation of a four-way Saudi/Turkish/Syria/Jordanian alliance to confront the threat posed by ISIS. It is within this context as well that we may best view Turkey’s military mobilization north of Syria and President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's statements stressing that his country cannot permit the establishment of a Kurdish state along his country's southern borders. And all this is happening amidst official Syrian silence, which this time round and contrary to previous times, is that of a party that supports what is happening.
Syrian Foreign Minister Mr. Walid al-Mu'allem who was present when President Putin proposed his initiative, described the emergence of such a four-way alliance as 'a miracle' in an age that is not one of miracles. But he did not express any opposition to it at least 'in principle.' Nor have we heard any outright rejection of it from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, or Turkey, at least until this article was written
The American confusion will continue, and in fact it may be deliberate. The aim may be to gain time while waiting for the positive (or negative results) of the last quarter-hour negotiations in Vienna regarding a nuclear agreement between Iran and the six major powers. There will be ways of dealing with whatever happens in the appropriate manner afterwards.
U.S. wagers in the Arab region have mostly failed to pay off. They have usually ended in failure at a very high cost. Its wager on the Iraqi opposition may have succeeded in toppling Iraqi president Saddam Hussein; but it produced a failed state that created the environment for the growth of ISIS. The same pattern was repeated in Libya and Yemen. Nor do we believe that the situation will be any different in Syria, especially as regards the wager on the Kurds to fight ISIS. For that policy is reshuffling all cards and may overturn alliances and bring catastrophes upon the Kurds who have accepted to play the same old/new role and trust American promises, even though they have previously ended in disappointment and bloody massacres. And there is nothing to suggest that the present may be any better than the past in this regard.
The region is on the verge of surprising new developments with a change in equations and alliances. Meanwhile, Arab League Secretary-General Nabil al-'Arabi's retraction of his 'documented courtship' of the Syrians and his return to a hard line – because some party has 'pinched his ear' after statements in which he confirmed his desire to meet with Mr. Mu'allem at any time and place specified by the latter – add an Arab dimension to the American confusion. At any rate, we await President Putin's 'miracle' and Erdogan's future steps that will follow the mobilization of Turkish military units north of Syria, one that will decide the features of the region's new map and its alliances.
We and others like us cannot but wait. Last Ramadan, we had the Israeli aggression on Gaza and Mr. Abu-Bakr al-Baghdadi’s declaration of the Caliphate State from the Great Nuri Mosque in Mosul.
"So what surprises will the last ten days of Ramadan or the happy [end of Ramadan feast] 'Id al-Fitr bring us? And will it really be a happy 'Id?" asks 'Atwan in conclusion.
3-‘A rock and roll dance’
The region as a whole, and the members of the [Iran/Syria/Hizbollah] resistance and opposition axis in particular, have a rendezvous with exciting developments by the end of July…No political analyst in Europe, the U.S., or the region overestimates the importance of next week, especially as far as expected developments regarding the two main issues are concerned: the Iranian nuclear file and Greece's economic crisis after the referendum supporting the Tsipras government. For it is from Athens and Tehran that coming developments may create a situation in which Iran and its allies will open a ‘fast track’ towards escalating the military campaign against terrorism in Iraq and Syria, with no need for U.S. aerial or any other form of support--Tahsin al-Halabi in Syrian al-Watan
We have lost all faith that Washington will seriously attend to any of the region's issues, especially at a time when we imagine Barack Obama doing a rock-and-roll dance to the tune of an Iranian band, drunk on the nuclear agreement that is expected to be signed at any moment. Tehran will be the winner from such an agreement. It will defeat an American negotiator who has presented 'the bomb' to the Iranians, confirming his inherited hatred for the Sunni Arabs, especially after they destroyed the Twin Towers... Washington's attempts to restore some warmth to its lukewarm relations with Saudi Arabia after Iran obtains an agreement that makes it easier to obtain the nuclear bomb in a few years, will fail. Riyadh has already taken hold of one end of the nuclear string that will lead it, the UAE, and perhaps Kuwait and Jordan to obtain a nuclear bomb with Pakistan's help--Mazin Hammad in Qatari al-Watan
The continuing nuclear negotiations in Vienna and the European summit that is meant to deal with the Greek crisis will yield results in the coming weeks, which will be crucial for the future of the region and the world, maintains a commentator in a pro-regime Syrian daily. Among other things, these developments will free the Iran/Syria/Hizbollah 'resistance axis' to launch more decisive battles against terrorism in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon. Tehran will be the main winner from the nuclear deal now being negotiated in Vienna, maintains a Jordanian commentator in a Qatari daily. This seems to be the consequence of the U.S.'s hatred for the Sunni Arabs after the 9/11 attacks. But it will be resisted by Saudi Arabia and its allies who will seek to acquire their own nuclear bomb, and will not tolerate any Iranian role in resolving the Palestinian problem.
EXCITING DEVELOPMENTS: "It seems that the region as a whole, and the members of the resistance and opposition axis in particular, have a rendezvous with exciting developments by the end of July," writes Tahsin al-Halabi in the semi-official Syrian daily al-Watan.
The scenarios of these developments will emerge next week, and most of their main features may be determined before July 20th.
No political analyst in Europe, the U.S., or the region overestimates the importance of next week, especially as far as expected developments regarding the two main issues are concerned: the Iranian nuclear file and Greece's economic crisis after the referendum supporting the Tsipras government. For it is from Athens and Tehran that coming developments may create a situation in which Iran and its allies will open a ‘fast track’ towards escalating the military campaign against terrorism in Iraq and Syria, with no need for U.S. aerial or any other form of support.
Iran’s agreement with the '5 + 1' will open the door for Tehran to regain 100-billion dollars of its assets currently frozen in Western financial institutions. According to David Rothkopf, CEO and editor of the FP Group that publishes Foreign Policy Magazine, Iran's threat to U.S. interests will increase because it will collect 44-billion dollars during the period when the expected agreement is implemented. For this reason, Rothkopf demands that the agreement be blocked, because it will strengthen Iran and Syria's role in ridding Iraq of American domination, as he sees it. The agreement will also consolidate Iran's role in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and among the BRICS states, who are in the process of preparing an ambitious global agenda in the coming few days.
It also seems that the EU summit meeting scheduled for a few days’ time will produce one of two results: Either to accept Tsipras' proposals with all their economic and political repercussions for Europe that Germany in particular cannot bear; or Athens will leave the Eurozone and return to the drachma. In both cases, Europe's relations with the U.S. and the Russian Federation will move on to a new situation that will create a great deal of polarization and schisms that are most likely not in the interest of American hegemony.
Therefore, the pressing question on the international arena today is this: What direction will the war on ISIS and similar organizations take in light of these developments?
What can be gleaned from the announcement that the U.S. sponsored program has trained no more than 60 Syrian opposition fighters is that Washington's war on ISIS resembles episodes of a Tom and Jerry cartoon, or some children's game. Meanwhile, the Syrian and Iraqi armed forces and popular mobilization units are achieving successive advances against ISIS and other groups on the ground. It is these Syrian, Iraqi, and Lebanese parties that are paying the price for terrorism that wants to expand in their states. Meanwhile, Washington has not exacted any price from ISIS; neither have its allies in the region.
This may explain President Obama's announcement that the war on ISIS may last for generations. Had ISIS been targeting the U.S. and its allies in the region, Obama would not have come up with such a notion.
For this reason, analysts in Washington expect the situation in the Middle East to change in a manner that affects U.S. interests and those of its allies, especially now that Saudi Arabia has sunk in Yemen's mountains and sands. Everyone believes that Washington will pay a price in the Arabian Peninsula after supporting the war on Yemen and what has been happening against the Yemeni people since March.
There is no doubt that the European/American agenda regarding Athens and its expected results in a few days' time, and the nuclear issue and the results of the negotiations between the '5 + 1' and Iran, will place the region and the world on the threshold of developments that will lead to numerous options.
"The BRICS states – Russia, China, India, Brazil, and South Africa – are looking forward to exploiting these developments with their regional allies in the Middle East," concludes Halabi.
DUST IN THE EYES: "The new U.S. strategy in the Middle East, which The Wall Street Journal claims the Obama administration is in the process of formulating, is no more than an attempt to sow dust in the eyes via vile and sordid hands," writes Mazin Hammad in Thursday's Qatari daily al-Watan.
France has withdrawn its initiative for reviving Palestinian/Israeli negotiations aimed at establishing a [Palestinian] state with East Jerusalem as its capital, for a nation that has suffered a lot under an ugly occupation backed by a veto from the U.S., the Palestinian people's enemy number-one. Now that this has happened, we have lost all faith that Washington will seriously attend to any of the region's issues, especially at a time when we imagine Barack Obama doing a rock-and-roll dance to the tune of an Iranian band, drunk on the nuclear agreement that is expected to be signed at any moment.
Tehran will be the winner from such an agreement. It will defeat an American negotiator who has presented 'the bomb' to the Iranians, confirming his inherited hatred for the Sunni Arabs, especially after they destroyed the Twin Towers. At the same time, the collapse of the French initiative and the civil and confessional fighting in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Libya, and Sissi's Egypt's move to the same square as that occupied by Netanyahu, have all contributed to allowing the Likud's leader to plant his teeth in the Palestinian body with no one to hold him accountable.
Washington's attempts to restore some warmth to its lukewarm relations with Saudi Arabia after Iran obtains an agreement that makes it easier to obtain the nuclear bomb in a few years, will fail. Riyadh has already taken hold of one end of the nuclear string that will lead it, the UAE, and perhaps Kuwait and Jordan, to obtain a nuclear bomb with Pakistan's help.
Palestine will remain the Israelis' nightmare, even if Netanyahu believes that Israel-ization and Judaization of what remains of it will restore some mental balance to his citizens or grant them the luxury of sleeping peacefully and soundly after sixty-five years of rape. Throughout that period, the rapist has not been allowed to enjoy the ecstasy of victory, while the victim has refused to accept the rape. Meanwhile, ISIS, which has already knocked on Egypt's gates and shook its security, will soon knock on Israel's gates, having promised to pull it out by the roots. This is another nightmare that will force the Jews to sleep with eyes wide open.
As for Obama, who has refrained from striking at Assad's regime and resolving the Palestinian problem, he wished to honor his Iranian allies, who will receive 154-billion dollars’ worth of their frozen assets after the nuclear agreement. That will be a first installment that will allow them to bolster their budget and give money and weapons to Hizbollah and the Houthis, and to fight ISIS.
"That is an idea that Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Cooperation Council states reject because it amounts to an American license to Tehran to manage the region from a position of strength, including a role in resolving the Palestinian problem," concludes Hammad.
4-A shameful silence
The international community and the Arabs have maintained a shameful and hypocritical silence as the Saudi-led assault on Yemen continues, says 'Urayb ar-Rintawi in today's Jordanian ad-Dustour
More than a hundred days have passed since the war in Yemen began, during which the Saudi-led alliance has killed thousands, wounded many more, displaced millions, and is in the process of destroying one of the world's oldest civilizations, notes a leading Jordanian commentator. But the 'international community' and the Arab world’s reaction has been at best muted, because of the billion-dollars oil, gas, and weapons deals struck with the aggressors.
PROFOUNDLY DISTURBING: "The international and humanitarian reports on what is happening in Yemen are profoundly disturbing," writes 'Urayb ar-Rintawi in Thursday's Jordanian daily ad-Dustour.
More than 80% of the people are suffering from difficult living conditions because of the war, bombing, and the tight aerial, ground and naval blockade that has been imposed on the country. More than half the Yemenis lack potable water. Thousands of people have been killed, and many times more wounded, and millions displaced inside their country.
The UN has declared a third-level humanitarian emergency, which is its highest. Only four countries around the world are in the same situation, three of which are Arab – Iraq, Syria, and now Yemen – as well as South Sudan; but no one comes to the rescue.
Roads, bridges, schools, universities, hospitals, public institutions, and government departments – all have suffered air strikes after the [Saudi] ‘target bank’ ran out. The same targets have been struck again and again.
The one-hundred-and-five days so far have caused a humanitarian crisis that is being passed over in silence because of political calculations – or, let us say, fears. No one wants to anger anyone. The 'free' Western world is schizophrenic and hypocritical. It does not cease denouncing the Syrian regimes 'explosive barrels' while maintaining the 'silence of the grave' regarding one of the ugliest humanitarian crises, as the UN reports testify.
All this suffering and pain is being indiscriminately brought down upon the heads of the Yemenis because they are a nation proud of its independence and dignity, one that is fed up of acting as proxy or a backyard for anyone, far or near.
All the ugly violations of Yemeni human rights are being committed in the hope that the white flag of surrender will one morning flutter over the rooftops of houses in Sana'a, Taiz, Sa'da, and Aden. But this has not happened throughout the one-hundred-and-five days of the futile war on Yemen, and it will not happen in the coming days.
The truly sad thing is that the Arab media that has been ‘enslaved’ [by Arab Gulf monies] pays no heed to the chapters and victims of this catastrophe. The focus is exclusively on glorifying the 'victories' and highlighting the manifestations of 'the Arabs' awakening' from among the ruins and human remains.
This is a mark of shame on the record of Arab human rights organizations, civil society, intellectuals, and media. They can see yet another brotherly people led to the guillotine but remain silent, indeed, gloating sometimes. Even Yemen's civilization and historical legacy – the country is the Arabs' original homeland – is being pounded by artillery and missiles and the only reactions are a few reticent expressions by UNESCO. The destruction of Old Sana'a and Shibam proceeds without protest, even though the 'international community' raised hell when the Bamiyan statues were destroyed for example.
It is the same double standards and international hypocrisy. Silence is maintained against a background of collusion in the killing of a nation, the starvation of children, the displacement of women, and the destruction of a human civilization and legacy – all for the sake of oil, weapons, and nuclear reactor deals at astronomical prices.
It is the same submission that we can see among Arab political regimes and governments, and for the same reasons. It is as if abiding by international humanitarian law and the rules of national brotherhood are required only from the poor, while the rich can trample on that law with their soldiers' boots.
This is despite the fact that the Yemenis have never let their Arab brothers down. Sana'a, like Aden, offered a warm lap for the [exiled] Palestinian factions. The Yemeni people made undeniable sacrifices in the arenas of the Arab/Israeli conflict. Yemen’s streets have never rested in support and solidarity with the Arabs' just causes.
And what is really unfortunate is that some Yemenis show little concern for the catastrophe befalling their brothers. They procrastinate about accepting a truce or a humanitarian lull, and boast that they were the ones who issued the decision to go to war and foiled the project for a truce that is not sealed by their signature.
But we know that they are lying. They entered the holy month of Ramadan without batting an eyelid about the fate suffered by their homeland’s children, women, and the poor. These Yemenis do not deserve to rule this country or to lead its people.
We hope that the coming Friday does not come and go without the relevant parties being 'ashamed' of and for themselves, and without allowing the Yemenis to spend what remains of this holy month and the days of the ‘Id [end of Ramadan feast] in comfort and peace – assuming the Yemenis can enjoy comfort and peace any more.
"To hell with power, gains, and thrones if reaching or keeping them requires launching miserable wars of this nature, wars whose fuel are people and ancient homes," concludes Rintawi.
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